A Practical Method of Playing Changes
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As students begin to explore a new concept or topic, they will ask questions. The opportunities to promote observation skills in the school environment are almost limitless. For example, by planting different types of seeds in pots, students can observe the plant life cycle directly themselves. By standing outside, students can observe how shadows are cast. By looking inside their own mouth, and those of other students, students can observe the similarities and differences between people's teeth.
You should use open-ended questions to encourage students to make a prediction. Student-driven investigations that are based on questions that the students have generated themselves will be more motivating and meaningful to them. You can provide students with simple equipment to create their own investigations.
Your students can provide oral feedback about what they have noticed or can draw and label what they have observed. Recording and collecting data is fundamental to the scientific method, with data students would not be able to draw conclusions about the way the world works around them.
Data can be collected and represented in a variety of ways such as, graphs, tables, sketches, photos, videos and journals. It is preferable for students to draw their own conclusions rather than be provided with answers by their teacher. You can help your students to construct their own meaning by asking them carefully worded open-ended questions.
Students should be given opportunities to discuss what they have noticed with their teachers and peers. This will help them to make connections between cause and effect, and help to organise their thinking.
Talk is a part of human development that helps us to think, learn and make sense of the world. People use language as a tool for developing reasoning, knowledge and understanding. Therefore, encouraging students to talk as part of their learning experiences will mean that their educational progress is enhanced. Talking about the ideas being learnt means that:. In a classroom there are different ways to use student talk, ranging from rote repetition to higher-order discussions.
However, using talk for learning involves planning lessons so that students can talk more and learn more in a way that makes connections with their prior experience. Most of us want to talk to someone about a difficult issue or in order to find out something, and teachers can build on this instinct with well-planned activities. Planning talking activities is not just for literacy and vocabulary lessons; it is also part of planning mathematics and science work and other topics. It can be planned into whole class, pair or groupwork, outdoor activities, role play-based activities, writing, reading, practical investigations, and creative work.
Even young students with limited literacy and numeracy skills can demonstrate higher-order thinking skills if the task is designed to build on their prior experience and is enjoyable. For example, students can make predictions about a story, an animal or a shape from photos, drawings or real objects. Students can list suggestions and possible solutions about problems to a puppet or character in a role play.
Plan the lesson around what you want the students to learn and think about, as well as what type of talk you want students to develop. Try to make it interesting, enjoyable and possible for all students to participate in dialogue. Students need to be comfortable and feel safe in expressing views and exploring ideas without fear of ridicule or being made to feel they are getting it wrong. Not all responses have to be written or formally assessed, because developing ideas through talk is a valuable part of learning.
A Practical Method of Playing Changes | Chord (Music) | Scale (Music)
You should use their experiences and ideas as much as possible to make their learning feel relevant. Groups talking together should be encouraged not to just accept an answer, whoever gives it. Your students will be encouraged if their talk, ideas and experiences are valued and appreciated. Praise your students for their behaviour when talking, listening carefully, questioning one another, and learning not to interrupt. Be aware of members of the class who are marginalised and think about how you can ensure that they are included. It may take some time to establish ways of working that allow all students to participate fully.
Students will not ask questions if they are afraid of how they will be received or if they think their ideas are not valued. Inviting students to ask the questions encourages them to show curiosity, asks them to think in a different way about their learning and helps you to understand their point of view. You could:. You may be pleasantly surprised at the level of interest and thinking that you see when students are freer to ask and answer questions that come from them.
As students learn how to communicate more clearly and accurately, they not only increase their oral and written vocabulary, but they also develop new knowledge and skills.
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Tell students they are going to investigate changes when substances are mixed and decide whether they are reversible or irreversible. Ask students to work in groups. They have one small container and collect substances and mix and observe.
Waste in bucket. Good lessons have to be planned. Planning helps to make your lessons clear and well-timed, meaning that students can be active and interested. Working on a plan for a series of lessons involves knowing the students and their prior learning, what it means to progress through the curriculum, and finding the best resources and activities to help students learn.
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Planning is a continual process to help you prepare both individual lessons as well as series of lessons, each one building on the last. The stages of lesson planning are:. When you are following a curriculum, the first part of planning is working out how best to break up subjects and topics in the curriculum into sections or chunks.
https://belgacar.com/components/pirater/localisation-numero-telephone-logiciel-gratuit.php You need to consider the time available as well as ways for students to make progress and build up skills and knowledge gradually. Your experience or discussions with colleagues may tell you that one topic will take up four lessons, but another topic will only take two. You may be aware that you will want to return to that learning in different ways and at different times in future lessons, when other topics are covered or the subject is extended. You will want to make learning active and interesting so that students feel comfortable and curious.
Consider what the students will be asked to do across the series of lessons so that you build in variety and interest, but also flexibility. Be prepared to be flexible if some areas take longer or are grasped quickly. After you have planned the series of lessons, each individual lesson will have to be planned based on the progress that students have made up to that point. You know what the students should have learnt or should be able to do at the end of the series of lessons, but you may have needed to re-cap something unexpected or move on more quickly.
Therefore each individual lesson must be planned so that all your students make progress and feel successful and included. Within the lesson plan you should make sure that there is enough time for each of the activities and that any resources are ready, such as those for practical work or active groupwork.
As part of planning materials for large classes you may need to plan different questions and activities for different groups. When you are teaching new topics, you may need to make time to practise and talk through the ideas with other teachers so that you are confident. At the start of a lesson, explain to the students what they will learn and do, so that everyone knows what is expected of them.
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Get the students interested in what they are about to learn by allowing them to share what they know already. Outline the content based on what students already know. You may decide to use local resources, new information or active methods including groupwork or problem solving. Identify the resources to use and the way that you will make use of your classroom space. Using a variety of activities, resources, and timings is an important part of lesson planning. Always allow time either during or at the end of the lesson to find out how much progress has been made.
Checking does not always mean a test. A good way to end the lesson can be to return to the goals at the start and allowing time for the students to tell each other and you about their progress with that learning. Listening to the students will make sure you know what to plan for the next lesson.
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