A Dialogue for Five Voices
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Bates, E. Recognition memory for aspects of dialogue. Google Scholar. Craik, F. Levels of processing: A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior , , 11 , — Eco, U. A Theory of Semiotics. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, Frederiksen, C. Representing logical and semantic structure knowledge acquired from discourse.
September 5, 2017
Cognitive Psychology , , 7 , — Geiselman, R. Inhibition of the automatic storage of speaker's voice. Memory and Cognition , , 7 , — Long-term memory for speaker's voice and source location. Memory and Cognition , , 4 , — Incidental retention of speaker's voice. Memory and Cognition , , 5 , — Incidental processing of speaker characteristics: voice as connotative information. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior , , 22 , 15— Grice, H.
A Dialogue For Five Voices, Book by Paul Davies (Paperback) | muigafestras.tk
Logic and conversation. During post-production, a supervising sound editor , or ADR supervisor, reviews all of the dialogue in the film and decides which lines must be re-recorded. The actor, usually the original actor from the set, views the scene with the original sound, then attempts to recreate the performance. Over the course of multiple takes , the actor performs the lines while watching the scene; the most suitable take becomes the final version.
Five weeks left for Listening and Dialogue phase
The process may be recorded on location, with mobile equipment. ADR can also be recorded without showing the actor the image they must match, but by having them listen to the performance, since some actors [ who? Sometimes, an actor other than the original actor is used during ADR. The tasks involved are performed by three different agents [ clarification needed ] in the dubbing process:. Sometimes the translator performs all five tasks. In other cases, the translator just submits a rough translation and a dialogue writer does the rest.
The dialogue writer often stays in the recording setting with the actors or the voice talents, to ensure that the dialogue is being spoken in the way that it was written to be, and to avoid any ambiguity in the way the dialogue is to be read focusing on emphasis, intonation, pronunciation, articulation, pronouncing foreign words correctly, etc.
The overall goal is to make sure the script creates the illusion of authenticity of the spoken language. An alternative method to dubbing, called "rythmo band" or " lip-sync band" , has historically been used in Canada and France. The rythmo band is projected in the studio and scrolls in perfect synchronization with the picture. Studio time is used more efficiently, since with the aid of scrolling text, picture, and audio cues, actors can read more lines per hour than with ADR alone only picture and audio.
Motivated by tone
With ADR, actors can average 10—12 lines per hour, while rythmo band can facilitate the reading of lines per hour. However, the preparation of a rythmo band is a time-consuming process involving a series of specialists organized in a production line. This has prevented the technique from being more widely adopted, but software emulations of rythmo band technology overcome the disadvantages of the traditional rythmo band process and significantly reduce the time needed to prepare a dubbing session.
Dub localization, also often simply referred to as localization , is the practice of voice-over translation that alters a film or television series from one region of the world to the local language of another. The new voice track is usually spoken by a voice actor. In many countries, actors who regularly perform this duty remain little-known, with the exception of particular circles such as anime fandom or when their voices have become synonymous with roles or actors whose voices they usually dub.
In the United States, many of these voice artists may employ pseudonyms or go uncredited due to Screen Actors Guild regulations or the desire to dissociate themselves from the role. Dub localization is a contentious issue in cinephilia amongst aficionados of foreign filmmaking and television programs , particularly anime fans. While some localization is virtually inevitable in translation, the controversy surrounding how much localization is "too much" is often discussed in such communities, especially when the final dub product is significantly different from the original.
Some fans frown on any extensive localization, while others expect it, and to varying degrees, appreciate it. In North-West Europe the UK , Republic of Ireland , the Netherlands , the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium , the Nordic countries and the Baltic states , Portugal and Balkan countries , generally only movies and TV shows intended for children are dubbed, while TV shows and movies for older audiences are subtitled although animated productions have a tradition of being dubbed.
For movies in cinemas with clear target audiences both below and above 10—11 years of age , both a dubbed and a subtitled version are usually available. In the United Kingdom , the vast majority of foreign language films are subtitled, although mostly animated films and TV programmes are dubbed in English. These usually originate from North America , as opposed to being dubbed locally. When airing films on television, channels in the UK often choose subtitling over dubbing, even if a dubbing in English exists. It is also a fairly common practice for animation aimed at preschool children to be re-dubbed with British voice actors replacing the original voices, such as Spin Master Entertainment's Paw Patrol series, although this is not done with shows aimed at older audiences.
Hinterland displays a not so common example of a bilingual production. Each scene is filmed twice, in the English and Welsh languages, apart from a few scenes where Welsh with subtitles is used for the English version. Ireland usually receives the same film versions as the UK.
In Romania , virtually all programmes intended for children are dubbed in Romanian , including cartoons, live-action movies and TV series on Disney Channel , Cartoon Network , Minimax , and Nickelodeon , as well as those shown on general television networks, children-focused series such as Power Rangers , Goosebumps , The New Addams Family , The Planet's Funniest Animals or movies screened on children's television. Animated movies are shown in theaters with Romanian dubbing.
However, those cinemas with more screening rooms usually also provide the original subtitled version. Other foreign TV shows and movies are shown in the original language with Romanian subtitles. Subtitles are usually preferred in the Romanian market. According to "Special Eurobarometer " graph QA However, according to the same Eurobarometer, virtually no Romanian found this method—watching movies in their original version—to be the most efficient way to learn foreign languages, compared to 53 percent who preferred language lessons at school.
In Romania, foreign language television programs and films are generally subtitled rather than dubbed. Children's animated and some live-action movies and TV series are dubbed into Serbian, while live-action films and TV series for adults are always airing subtitled, because in this region people prefer subtitling for live-action formats.
Turkish soap opera Lale Devri started airing dubbed in , on RTV Pink , but because of bad reception, dub failed and rest of TV series was aired subtitled. These phrases became immensely popular and are still being used for tongue-in-cheek comments in specific situations.
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These dubs are today considered cult dubs. The only dub made after s and s ones that's considered cult is SpongeBob SquarePants dub, made by B92 in period , because of a great popularity and memorable translation with local humor phrases, such as s dubs translation. Some Serbian dubs are also broadcast in North Macedonia , while cult dubs made during Yugoslavia were aired all over the country today's Croatia , Bosnia and Herzegovina , Montenegro , Slovenia , North Macedonia and Serbia.
In Croatia , foreign films and TV series are always subtitled, while most children's programs and animated movies are dubbed into Croatian. The practice of dubbing began in the s in some animated shows and continued in 90's, 00's and forward in other shows and films, the latter ones being released in home media.
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Recently, more efforts have been made to introduce dubbing, but public reception has been poor in some exceptions. Regardless of language, Croatian audiences prefer subtitling to dubbing, however it is still popular in animated films. Some previously popular shows such as Sailor Moon lost their appeal completely after the practice of dubbing began, and the dubbing was eventually removed from the programs, even though most animated shows shown on television and some on home media have been well received by people watching them with own dub.
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This situation is similar with theater movies, with only those intended for children being dubbed such as Finding Nemo and Shark Tale , but nowadays are shown in dubbed versions. Some of Croatian dubbing is also broadcast in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In Slovenia , all foreign films and television programs are subtitled with the exception of children's movies and TV shows both animated or live-action. While dubbed versions are always shown in cinemas and later on TV channels, cinemas will sometimes play subtitled versions of children's movies as well.
North Macedonia dubbed many cartoons in Macedonian , but they also air some Serbian dubs. Children's programs are airing dubbed in Macedonian or Serbian , while every other program is subtitled in Macedonian. They use Serbian dubs for Disney movies, because there are no Macedonian Disney dubs. Bosnia and Herzegovina usually uses Serbian and Croatian dubs, but they have dubbed some cartoons in Bosnian by themselves, for example My Little Pony: Friendship is Magic. Children's programs both animated and live-action are airing dubbed in Serbian, Croatian or Bosnian , while every other program is subtitled in Bosnian.
In the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium Flanders , movies and TV series are shown in their original language with subtitles , with the exception of most movies made for a young audience. In the latter case, sometimes separate versions are recorded in the Netherlands and in Flanders for instance, several Walt Disney films and Harry Potter films. These dubbed versions only differ from each other in their use of different voice actors and different pronunciation, while the text is almost the same.
In the French-speaking part of Belgium Wallonia , the range of French-dubbed versions is approximately as wide as the German range, where nearly all movies and TV series are dubbed. In Portugal , dubbing was banned under a law as a way of protecting the domestic film industry and reduce the access to culture as most of the population was illiterate.